Biosphere Expeditions Menu

Carnivores of the Cape Floral Kingdom: surveying Cape leopards, caracals and other species in the fynbos mountains of South Africa


This expedition will take you to South Africa’s beautiful Cape Floral Kingdom (fynbos), a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the world’s only biome contained within one country, to conduct a survey of leopard, caracal and fynbos biodiversity and to experience African fauna (such as buffalo, giraffe, eland, kudu, zebras, etc.). Based in a remote mountainous part of the Western Cape on a comfortable former farmstead with all modern amenities, you will first learn some bush skills and then conduct surveys on foot, mountain bike or car. You will also set camera traps, conduct game counts and you may assist with cat capturing and collaring. All this in an effort to mitigate human-wildlife conflict and create a sustainable future for all.

Expedition contribution: £1790 (ca. €2470 | US$2630 | AU$3450) land only per group dates as shown below. Please note: expedition contributions are quoted in £ and the approximate € | US$ | AU$ equivalents. Try the XE currency converter for other currencies and up to date exchange rates.

Dates & meeting point: 4 – 16 October | 18 – 30 October 2015 (13 days). Participants can join for multiple slots (within the periods specified). The meeting point is in George, a regional centre in Western Cape province and on South Africa’s famous Garden Route. George is easily reached by major international or regional no-frills airlines via Johannesburg or Cape Town. More details on this and how to get to the assembly point are in the expedition briefing

Status & availability: Amber: Expeditions of status amber have few spaces available (or are currently in the field). To join them you need to decide soon.
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  • Cape leopard caught in a camera trap (c) Blue Hill Nature Reserve
  • Cape leopard caught in a camera trap (c) Blue Hill Nature Reserve
  • Caracal caught in a camera trap (c) Blue Hill Nature Reserve
  • The expedition base, a former farmstead
  • One building (garage & accommodation) of the former farmstead
  • The fynbos Cape floral kingdom & mountains, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • The fynbos Cape floral kingdom & mountains, a UNESCO World Heritage
  • Aardvark caught in a camera trap (c) Blue Hill Nature Reserve
  • Baboon selfie by camera trap ;) (c) Blue Hill Nature Reserve
  • Surveying by mountain bike
  • Surveying by mountain bike
  • Cape buffalo
  • Surveying by car
  • Checking the expedition vehicle
  • Hyrax caught in a camera trap (c) Blue Hill Nature Reserve
  • Oryx caught in a camera trap (c) Blue Hill Nature Reserve
  • Oryx & springbok
  • Recording data
  • Recording data
  • Khoi San rock art in the study site
  • African sunset
  • Surveying
  • Setting a camera trap
  • Setting off on a survey by foot
  • Game count from the back of the expedition vehicle
  • Leopard live capture
  • Recording tracks
  • Zebra & giraffe
More pictures on   Facebook   GooglePlus   wordpress


A word on safe travel in South Africa

This is what Lonely Planet has to say: “South Africa has a bad reputation for crime, but it’s easy for travellers to avoid as it is concentrated around the big cities. Outside the big cities, in rural locations [such as the expedition study site] South Africa is a perfectly safe place for travellers to be.” We whole-heartedly agree. And further “The impression you give in any city is paramount [and common sense]. Do not appear to be loaded with cash and valuables, and consider carrying a dummy wallet or purse. Always be vigilant, particularly when using ATMs and conducting financial transactions. Walking down a well-lit central street in Cape Town at night is safer than walking around Johannesburg after dark, which should be avoided.”


Mountainous fynbos.

Weather expected during expedition

The Cape Floral Kingdom is classified as being in the Mediterranean climate zone. This means that it is generally dry and warm, but also that it can rain at any time of the year.

Expedition base

The expedition team will be based on a former farmstead in a remote part of the mountains. Team members will share, on a twin bed basis, comfortable rooms with beds, linen and all modern amenities such as mains power, hot showers and WCs. There is also a communal building with a dining room, rest areas with sofas and a fireplace.

Team size

Up to 12 team members + 1-2 local scientist + 1 expedition leader.

Skills & prerequisites required

None. You don't need to be a scientist or have any special qualifications - everyone can take part and there are no age limits whatsoever.

Fitness level required

Some of the work will be done from the expedition vehicles or is computer-based, but to make the most of this expedition you also need to be able to walk for about 10 km, sometimes when it is hot and in broken, mountainous terrain for some of the activities. There is also an (optional) transect cycle route of 20 km along farm tracks and dirt roads through hilly terrain.

Team assembly point

George, a regional centre in Western Cape province and on South Africa’s famous Garden Route. George is easily reached by major international or regional no-frills airlines via Johannesburg or Cape Town.
> full details on how to get there are in the expedition briefing

Aims & objectives

Our main aim is to develop camera-trap and transect monitoring techniques that will enable landowners to determine predator and prey densities on their land. Our mission is to implement, through the acquisition of sound scientific data, important conservation solutions in the day-to-day management decisions of landowners and to mitigate human-wildlife conflict on a local and regional scale. We also want to contribute to the biodiversity monitoring of the area through the contribution to citizen science projects. To achieve all this, the expedition will

(1) With an emphasis on leopard and caracal, monitor density, abundance, spatial distribution, home range size and habitat preferences of a known population of wildlife on a nature reserve using transect and camera trap techniques.
(2) Collect or document all predator scat remains and start a prey identification catalogue.
(3) Conduct biodiversity and river health monitoring through citizen science projects such as MammalMAP, the Southern African Bird Atlas Project (SABAP2), iSPOT and miniSASS.


This expedition focuses on monitoring two of Africa’s iconic cats: the threatened Cape mountain leopard and the caracal, in an effort to mitigate conflict with farmers and thereby contributing significantly to cat survival and their conservation. Working in the unique biome of South Africa’s Cape Floral Kingdom (fynbos) – a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the world’s only biome contained within one country – the expedition will also conduct a larger biodiversity survey, focusing on cat prey species such as antelopes, as well as birds and vegetation. The ultimate goal is to develop a remote monitoring technique that will better inform landowners of the status of their prey wildlife and predatory cats, identify potential conflict areas, and use the knowledge gained to mitigate conflicts.

Almost all of Africa is under some sort of human impact and the Cape Floral Kingdom (fynbos) is no exception. Much wildlife roams on understaffed, underfinanced, remote, mountainous nature reserves where monitoring is difficult; or on private farmland where landowners have mixed attitudes to perceived problem animals such as leopards, caracal, jackal, baboons and bushpig. The Cape mountain leopard is one of South Africa’s TOPS (Threatened Or Protected Species), which restricts legal hunting, but the laws are near impossible to enforce. There is a strong farmer lobby pushing for greater control of ‘pest’ species, and anecdotal evidence suggests control by legal and illegal methods is widespread across the country.

Wherever humans and wildlife come together, conflicts tend to appear, and human-wildlife conflict has been identified as one of the biggest threats to biodiversity worldwide. Sound scientific knowledge is key to mitigating this conflict and to making wise management decisions that balance the need of humans, wildlife and the environment. We believe that knowledge is the key to conservation and the most effective way to mitigate human-wildlife conflict.

The Cape Floral Kingdom is one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots and as such a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is dominated by a fire-driven ecosystem – the fynbos biome with unsurpassed botanical richness: 7,000 of 9,000 plant species that are found here are endemic. It is in the flower-filled Cape Fold Mountains of South Africa that the Cape mountain leopard is found – a leopard half the size of the savannah leopards of Africa, but with home ranges twice the size. In 2008 the IUCN (International Union for the Conervation of Nature) classified leopards as Near Threatened, stating that they may soon qualify for the Vulnerable status due to habitat loss and fragmentation. Indeed, they are becoming increasingly rare outside protected areas.

The study site is a registered Nature Reserve and it is an obligation of management to undertake biodiversity monitoring. We will be conducting a variety of biodiversity monitoring activities, because resources that are not measured are rarely considered when management or planning decisions are made. Biodiversity is the amount of diversity between different plants, animals and other species in a given habitat at a particular time. Some evidence exists that shows that by protecting keystone or flagship species (such as the leopard and caracal), other biodiversity can also benefit.


Biosphere Expeditions' main partner for this expedition is Blue Hill Nature Reserve. In turn, conservation partners for Blue Hill are CapeNature (responsible for the management of Western Cape province nature reserves), Eastern Cape Parks and Tourism agency (responsible for the management of the Baviaanskloof Megareserve), the BaviaansWes-Hartbeesrivier Conservancy (a local community of landowners involved in the clearing of alien vegetation). Blue Hill also supports a variety of research and conservation initiatives, for instance CREW (Custodians of Rare and Endangered Wildflowers) and the Landmark Foundation (a leopard and predator research and conservation organisation). On the education front, Blue Hill hosts students and staff of Living Lands (a collaboration working on living landscapes based in the eastern Baviaanskloof).

Study species

Leopard (Panthera pardus)
Caracal (Felis caracal)
African wildcat (Felis silvestris)
Black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas)
Chacma baboon (Papio usinus)
Bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus)

Other mammal species present in the area (you can visit a neighbouring game farm on your day off to see many of the ones you miss during the expedition surveys): Cape buffalo, Cape mountain zebra, Burchell’s zebra, giraffe, black wildebeest, greater kudu, grey rhebok, mountain reedbuck, klipspringer, grey duiker, Cape grysbok, eland, bushbuck, steenbok, springbok, red hartebeest, blesbok, vervet monkey, Cape fox, bat-eared fox, aardvark, aardwolf, honey badger, Cape genet, mongoose, Cape clawless otter, Cape hare, red-tailed rock rabbit, rock hyrax or dassie, crested porcupine.

Typical day

Your typical day begins early in the morning with breakfast at the expedition base. You will then split into small groups to complete the research tasks assigned to you for the day. Depending on your task, fitness level and skills, you may leave base in a vehicle, on a mountain bike or on foot. Also depending on the task, you will return to base for a lunch break with time for a siesta during the hottest part of the day, or you may stay out in the field for the day with a lunch pack. Everyone will return to base for dinner. After dinner, we will have talks, discussions and brainstorming/planning sessions for the next day.

Please note that every team member will be rotated through all activities. A cook will prepare our meals at base camp where you will return to eat, rest and have a shower. 

Research area

At 1.2 million sq km, South Africa is the world's 25th largest country. It is incredibly biodiverse, with habitats ranging from forest to savannah, grassland, thicket, karoo, desert and fynbos. South Africa is also very rich in wildlife, and is a favoured Big Five safari destination.

The core of the study site is the Blue Hill Nature Reserve, a 2,300 ha CapeNature stewardship nature reserve with mountains ranging from 1,000 to just under 2,000 m and under the care of the Lee family trust. CapeNature is the Western Cape provincial conservation department in charge of the network of nature reserves of the Western Cape. The property was purchased in 2009 by Chris Lee, a retired geologist who has been awarded the Draper Memorial Award for contributions to South African geology. The land was previously used for cattle ranching. It was incorporated into the local community conservancy in 2010 and officially declared a nature reserve in 2013. The trust has an obligation to manage the land for biodiversity under a management plan administered by Eastern Cape Parks and Tourism, the state organisation charged with managing the Baviaanskloof Mega Reserve.

Blue Hill lies on the western side of the massive Baviaanskloof Mega Reserve and wildlife is free to move between these protected areas. The Baviaanskloof area is one of outstanding natural beauty, owing to its spectacular land forms, a diverse array of plants and wide variety of animals. The area is also part of the Cape Floristic Region World Heritage Site as of 2004.

And finally (almost)

Our expeditions are not about playing the primitive, neither are we a military style 'boot-camp'. Our expedition leader and the local scientist will be by your side and we believe strongly that we get the best out of our expedition teams by making them comfortable, safe and well fed. You won’t be living in the lap of luxury, but we will do our best to make you feel comfortable and at home in your working environment, as this is the key to a well-balanced and successful expedition.

And finally (briefing)

Even more details, including instructions on how to get to the assembly point, are in the expedition briefing below.


For even more details such as activities, staff, accommodation, the assembly point and how to get there, and lots more, please access the expedition briefing by providing your full name and e-mail.

Biosphere Expeditions will never share these details with anyone. 

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(change this as applicable) by the payment method below.

Transfer funds into the Biosphere Expeditions bank account
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A/C number 24303046
Sort code 53-81-16
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Please make sure your bank sends funds in Pounds Sterling and debits all transaction charges to your account.
Your place on the expedition will be confirmed once your deposit has arrived in our bank account.

Please note that we can only accept UK cheques made out in Pounds Sterling. Cheques should be made payable to "Biosphere Expeditions".

Send your cheque to one of our offices. Once your cheque has been received and cleared, your place on the expedition will be confirmed.

After submitting this form, you will be redirected to our payment provider, SagePay, to enter your payment information.

IMPORTANT: Please copy the anti-spam code on the left into the box on the right.

Results & achievements

This is a new expedition, so there have not been any results or achievements yet. However, all scientific reports and publications for Biosphere Expeditions are on the reports & publications page. As far as we are aware, Biosphere Expeditions is the only organisation in the world that has a direct and transparent link between the work done by citizen scientists and an expedition report. Each expedition year is matched by an expedition report for that year, which deals with the two main areas that expedition participants contribute to: funding and data collection. Chapter 1 of each report, written by Biosphere Expeditions, reviews the expedition logistics and publishes an expedition budget, which shows in a clear and transparent way income and expenditure for each expedition and the percentage of income spent on the project. Chapter 2 onwards, written by the expedition scientist, shows who collected what data, how they were analysed, what the conclusions were, as well as the conservation recommendations and actions flowing from this, and what future expeditions should do. In this way, each expedition comes full circle for its participants.

Awards & accolades

Since this is a new expedition, it has not won any awards or accolades yet. However, our former Namibia big cat expedition, which was very similar to his new expedition, was honoured as follows:

National Geographic    

The Namibia expedition was honoured in the National Geographic Traveler "Tours of a Lifetime" list.

Yves Rocher fondation    

A scientist on the Namibia expedition was made a laureate of the environmental prize "Trophée de femmes" of the Fondation Yves Rocher.

Wall Street Journal    

The Namibia expedition was honoured in Wall Street Journal’s "Best Volunteer Travel" list.

Business Insider    

The Namibia expedition was honoured in Business Insider’s "Best Volunteer Vacation" list.


More videos on   YouTube


Since this is a new expedition, it has not had any press coverage yet. However, our former Namibia big cat expedition, which was very similar to his new expedition, has had the following coverage: 

Escape   Wilderness adventure
in English
pdf View article 3.44 Mb
    The Australian   Great big leopard diary
in English
pdf View article 3.72 Mb
Biosphere Expeditions Magazine 2011   Turning farmland into conservation areas
in English
pdf View article 426.75 Kb
    Psychologies magazine   Going wild for leopards
in English
pdf View article 2.99 Mb
Forbes   Track African cats in Namibian highlands
in English
pdf View article 369.05 Kb
    BA High Life   Where the wild things are
in English
pdf View article 1.20 Mb
CN Traveller   Leopard conservation in Namibia
in English
View article
    LTU   Cheetah trail
in English
pdf View article 3.52 Mb
Women's Adventure Magazine   Wildlife Voluntourism in Namibia
in English
pdf View article 196.76 Kb
New Trail
  Erin McCloskey’s Namibian wildlife encounter
in English
pdf View article 124.30 Kb
Independent   City boy animal instincts
in English
pdf View article 3.98 Mb
    Land der Berge   Mit Biosphere Expeditions in Namibia: 
Die Wüste lebt

in German
pdf View article 4.54 Mb
Emotion Magazin   Die Leoparden-Retterin
in German
pdf View article 12.42 Mb
    GeoSaison   Hilfreich im Tierreich
in German
pdf View article 1.43 Mb
Universum   Geparde mit Sendungsbewusstsein
in German
pdf View article 594.46 Kb
    Sonntag Aktuell   Katzenjammer auf der Farm
in German
pdf View article 91.11 Kb
LTU   Die Spur des Geparden
in German
pdf View article 6.53 Mb
    Land   Pretection des fauves
in French
pdf View article 7.80 M
More press coverage on   Issuu  


“Here in South Africa, the Cape leopard, caracal and wildcat survive in the mountains of the Western Cape despite centuries of hunting and persecution. Due to the inaccessibility of its preferred habitat, the Cape leopard is little studied, as are caracal and wildcat. There are also few studies quantifying mammal abundance in this region, and none that explore the competition for prey resources amongst this set of carnivores. As part of our biodiversity monitoring in this relatively uninhabited part of the world we make extensive use of citizen scientists, who live with us, check our camera traps, assist in various research activities, such as trapping and tracking and reporting interesting wildlife encounters. I would like to invite you to join me at my home of Blue Hills Nature Reserve to help me in my quest to understand the prey dynamics of our most beautiful and elusive wildlife – the carnivores of the Cape Floral Kingdom.”
Dr. Alan Lee, local scientist, South Africa.

Since this is a new expedition, it has not had any feedback yet. However, some example feedback for our former Namibia big cat expedition, which was very similar to his new expedition, is below:

“A big thank you to all those involved in this wonderful project for giving us the chance to be part of it. I came with high expectations, which have been more than fulfilled. I leave with wonderful memories of the real wild Africa, not just of the game reserves I have visited before. The last two weeks have been an awe-inspiring experience with so many highlights! I hope your continued work is as successful as it has been so for and you are able to fulfil your aims.”

Eva Davey, 66.

Feedback from team members about their experiences and reasons for coming (on/from various expeditions).

“I can’t find French words to tell you how fantastic this stay was for me so you can imagine in English! So thank you for making my dream come true and so memorable. Please just stay the way you are – it’s so good to meet people like you and all the work that you do.”
Géraldine Illien, 33.

"We really had a wonderful time and are very grateful for all your hard work. We had very high expectations for this expedition and they were all more than met; we would not hesitate to do something like this again, so you have not heard the last of us." 
Jethro Frankenberger, 27 & Karolin Renkel, 26.

“The dynamics between the expedition leader, scientists, guides and cooks were outstanding, which really made the expedition go well. (…) It was amazing seeing conservation in action and it was especially the enthusiasm of the staff that brought the expedition alive.” 
Marie Camus, 38.

“This has been the most wonderful period in my life and I am so glad to have had the opportunity to spend four weeks here. Many, many wonderful memories. Thank you Biosphere for making it all possible. All in all a very, very memorable and life-changing experience.”
Anne Evans, 48.

> more testimonials

Expedition diary / blog

See what's gone on during past expeditions via the expedition diary and blog.

Frequently asked questions

What's the accommodation like and how do I get to the assembly point?
A description of the accommodation and some pictures are in the details section above. All participants organise their own travel to the assembly point, which is an easy to find place in-country, and exact instructions on how to get there at what time are in the expedition briefing, which you can download above. > more

Is it just young people roughing it, i.e. will it be for me or am I too old/young/unfit?
A common misconception is that conservation expeditions are full of youngsters roughing it and boozing. With Biosphere Expeditions nothing could be further from the truth! Our typical participant is in his/her mid-30s to late 70s (average age 42.3, spread six months to 87 years). It is rare to have fewer than five nationalities, typically from Europe, North America and Australasia, on the expedition, all united by the common interest in wildlife, wilderness and conservation. If you would like details who is already signed up, then just get in touch. > more

Do I need special skills or fitness?
Apart from the ability to communicate in English and a diving qualification for our diving expeditions, there are no special skills (biological or otherwise) required to join our expeditions, and there are no age limits whatsoever. If you have special needs, please contact us to find out about the suitability of the experience of your choice. > more

How good does my English have to be?
If, with the help of a dictionary and a little patience, you can understand what we are talking about here, then don't worry - you'll be fine.

Will I be safe?
Yes. Although we are not in the business of controlling nature and expect you to take some responsibilities, safety is our top priority. Our three key watchwords are ‘safety, science, satisfaction’ - in that order. We always have emergency procedures and backup systems in place. Biosphere Expeditions has an excellent safety record with no serious accidents, long-lasting injuries or let alone deaths since its foundation in 1999. > more

Can people under 18 attend?
Yes, because there are no (upper or lower) age restrictions. With their parents' consent they can also come by themselves.

How do I sign up and when do I pay?
Signing up is easy: Use the  and pay a deposit of £300; the full balance will be due four weeks before the start of the expedition. If you don't want to sign up online, you can also download paper forms to fax or snail-mail.

What's included and what's not included?
Once you have made it to the assembly point and we’re on our way, we pay for everything apart from the obvious such as personal souvenirs, luxury drinks, phone calls home, etc. (and in many places we go to there's no need for money anyway ;). Travel arrangements to the assembly point are for you to make and pay for. Additional costs may include passport, visa and airport fees, your personal gear and preparations, and travel insurance, but not much more. There are certainly no hidden fees from our end.

Where does my money go?
On average at least two-thirds of your contribution will benefit the project directly and locally, the rest will go towards administrative back-up, as well as researching and setting up new expeditions. Within six to twelve months after your expedition you will receive an expedition report with full details on how your expedition contribution was spent on running the expedition and supporting its research work. We can put as much as two-thirds into the project, because we are a non-profit/charitable research and conservation organisation, not a large scale tourism business, which means that we can keep expensive overhead costs to a minimum. We also do very little advertising and costly marketing, concentrating instead on press, media and research publication work. > more

> more FAQs and detailed answers in text and video format are on the FAQ page

More questions?

If you have any more questions, please just e-mail us, get in touch with one of our offices, or use the form below.